Preserving your Past for the Future

 

 

The 1842 Tithe Map

Tithes were payments in kind of a tenth of the annual produce from the land. They were payable on everything arising from the ground (grain, wood, vegetables etc), on everything nourished from the ground (calves, lambs, wool, milk etc) and everything resulting from man's labour (the profits from fishing or mills etc). These payments in kind would be made up from the full range of produce, and were payable to the church for the support of church and clergy. Many original mediaeval tithe barns can still be seen in England; these large barns were built to collect and store the quantity of annual  produce brought in by parishioners, and were usually associated with the church or rectory. No records have come to light which indicate where Aveton Gifford's tithe barn might have been, but it is probably safe to assume that, as in many other parishes, the barn would have been in the village near to the church.

In 1836 when the Tithe Commutation Act was passed, the majority of parishes in England and Wales still had to pay their tithes, and this included Aveton Gifford. In pratice it was often hugely unsatisfactory to collect them in hard produce, and so the Act was passed to substitute them with monetary payments (known as "commutation"). The tithes were based on the size of each parcel of land and the use it was currently put to, although the actual amount could vary from year to year according to the estimated price of wheat, oats and barley (estimated over a seven year span to calculate the average price). However first of all, some form of valuation had to be made to base the payments upon, and the system of tithe maps with their apportionments was duly set up; both maps and apportionments were the two halves of one commutation document.

Thus the Aveton Gifford tithe map of 1842 and its apportionment was produced, in accordance with instructions laid down at the time, to record all holdings in the parish - their fields with identifying names and numbers, the area of each with crops, orchards, and waste land, and including other holdings such as mills or lime kilns. The owners and occupiers of each of them was recorded as well. A map was drawn up  for the parish by a professional surveyor to accompany the apportionment, and three copies were made. They were all hand drawn on a scale of approximately 28 inches to the mile, and vary slightly. They are very large and quite unwieldy to use. Only two copies survive, and the one kept here in Aveton Gifford has disappeared; according to the National Archives many maps were so heavily used that they became badly damaged, and maybe that was the case here.

However in 1842 the rector of the parish at that time, the Rev. Benjamin Vaughan, would derive some of his income from the tithes collected. The sum due to  Rev. Vaughan in that year was £667 - in 2012 its equivalent value was an eye-watering £57,000  - quite a sizeable income if everybody paid up! (It is worth noting that it wasn't his only source of support. Housing was provided by the Church in the form of the parsonage, and land in the parish - "glebe" land - had also been assigned to support the incumbent; it could either be used by the priest himself, or leased out for someone else to farm, and thus bring in some rent. In either case it would provide additional benefits.) 

The Tithe Atlas and Apportionment 

The two surviving tithe maps for this parish are in Exeter and Kew, and although many tithe maps are now digitised and are gradually being put on line, the Parish Project Group decided in 2009 to make the map for our parish more easily available, and much easier to read. Over the course of a year, and with the help of Tim Burr from the Cookworthy Museum in Kingsbridge, the map was photocopied and printed up in smaller atlas-size pages. The apportionment was printed up and given two separate indexes to interpret it more easily. To complete the project the group produced printed copies of all this information in the form of a book with accompanying DVD, which can be borrowed from the group by arrangement. Contact AGPPG 

 

To view the Atlas and Apportionment

We have also been given permission by the Historic Environment Service to allow the atlas and apportionment details to be viewed on this website.

Please follow the links below;

Maps     

The tithe map for the parish in 1842 is displayed over 20 pages.

 

Brief analysis of the apportionment    

Aveton Gifford Apportionment - master list - (a .pdf file.)

This is a transcript of the original apportionment documentation, and gives a complete list of all the properties in the parish along with their landowners and occupiers, and the home/farmsteads, fields, orchards etc, all with identifying names, acreages and the uses to which they were put. 

Information from this apportionment has been broken down into the two indexes below to make it easier to use when looking at the maps.

Landowners and Occupiers Index       

Arranged in alphabetical order of names, giving the name of the property and the plan numbers.

Properties Index - this is a .pdf file which opens in Adobe Reader;     to download Reader click -> 
 
Arranged in alphabetical order of properties, with plan numbers.
 

Using the atlas and indexes

For convenience we have arranged the apportionment in numerical order of the item numbers, which brings together all the fields and parts making up the ownership of a particular property. In view of the large number of small properties in the village this has been placed on a separate map on page 20. The map reference appears in the final column; where there is no number present we have been unable to find it on the map. It may have been omitted by the creator of the copy of the map in the record office or be too small to be seen on the copy we have used.
 

Additional notes

1. The spelling used is that of the Tithe map and may not accord with modern versions of properties or surnames. Modern spelling is used on the key map with Tithe map version underneath in brackets.

2. 1 acre = 4 roods = 4840 square yards

    1 rood = 40 perches = 1210 square yards
    1 perch = 30¼ square yards

3. Edmund Pollexfen Bastard of Kitley, whose name appears as a landlord was the Lord of the Manor of Aveton.

4. Henry Jeans the Trustee of Collings Tenement (Plan Nos 560 – 571) represents The Weavers, Fullers and Shearmen of Exeter.

5. Church Lands at nos. 705 – 711 belonged directly to the church and were not Glebe. Rents for these properties were paid to the Churchwardens. Item 707 was the Church House Inn in Fore Street.

6. No landlord or owner was given for the Weslyan Chapel at 1578.

7. The landlord of Efford Bottoms (1538 – 1547) is shown in full as His Grace the Duke of Cleveland representative of the late Duke of Boulton.

8. The original map and apportionment are not without errors; in some cases it has not proved possible to locate a site on the map and the sequence 1092-1094 has not been used.
 

A Brief Analysis of the Apportionment 

Areas

The tithe map apportionment gives a clear picture of the nature of farming in the middle of the 19th century:

• Arable land 2,805
• Meadow and pasture 696
• Wood, Furze and Plantation 154
• Orchard 135
• Total parish acreage 3,790

It would be interesting to make a comparison with the parish today. Of one thing you can be certain, orchards so necessary in the past for cider making, are now very rare.

Properties

There are 81 properties listed, broken up into 1,580 sites. Most of these are fields, but as they consist of everything on which a tithe could be levied, they also include homesteads, cottages, gardens, kilns, orchards, and woods.

Field Shapes and sizes

The shape of the fields owes much to the type of terrain. The many small streams and valleys tend to dictate where a suitable area is available. The practice of creating water meadows, when the land was deliberately allowed to flood, in the belief that this stimulated grass growth is apparent and in some cases it is possible to detect other influences of the past. From before the enclosures the old strip pattern can be seen and some field boundaries align with the parish boundary, indicating that they are very old and dating back to Saxon times.
Small fields and farms were quite practical at the time that the tithe maps were created; “12 acres and a cow” was a viable concept. All the heavy work on the farm was carried out by horse or oxen. With the later need for economy of scale, farms grew in size and hedge banks were grubbed out to create fields more suited to large vehicles, so that the size of fields has been radically altered in some areas. Fortunately, the lay of the land has meant that the patchwork pattern of fields still exist locally.

Value of crops

A separate panel on the original apportionment sets out the following values per bushel: Wheat 7s 0¼d, Barley 8s 11½d and Oats 2s 9d

A bushel was originally a measure of capacity for grain. By this date a bushel of wheat equated to roughly 56 lbs (25.4 kg)

Field Names

Probably the most interesting part of the apportionment is the range of field names, essential on the farm to identify where someone is going to work or is working.
There are certain conventions which are common throughout the country. The use of Homer and Yonder, to indicate which is nearer the homestead, is one example. Thus we have Homer and Yonder Marsh at Court (Barton). Indications of shape is another. There is Three Corner Orchard at Efford Bottoms and Square Field at Chantry.
An outstanding feature sometimes gives a name. Tower Park is overlooked by the Parish Church tower and there is a Palegate Orchard at Lixton.
At Titwell there are New Walls and Old Walls (1209 and 1210) and Quarry Park is pretty obvious).
The presence of water is often indicated, instances being: Spring Park (1183), Well Spring (313), Water Park (137); and of trees: Fir Plot (990), Ash Park (1360), Oakey (1192).
Animals associated with fields can also be found: Calves Plot (163), Grey Mare (319), Rats Hole Orchard (393), Deer Park (1197) and examples of crops which have been grown or are growing as in: Wheat Park (30), Peas Park (362)
Oat Arish (844) and Oat Park (1054).
Some names defy definition. One wonders how Great Crabs Court Park (1280) got its name; why was Giants Table Field (61) so named, and how about Willey Tray (449)?
One could go on, but let us finish with a bit of humour: Higher Great Field is just over an acre in size, as are Lower Great Field, Yonder Higher Great Field and Homer Higher Great Field (1147 – 1150); and Forty Acres (882) is actually 2 roods and 29 perches in size.
Dated: October 2010

 

Landowners & Occupiers 

NAME

Adams, Nicholas (L)
Ashburton School (L)
Bastard, Edmund (L)
Bastard, Edmund Pollexfen (L)
Bastard, Edmund Pollexfen (L)
Bastard, Edmund Pollexfen (L)
Bastard, Edmund Pollexfen (L)
Bastard, Edmund Pollexfen (L)
Bastard, Edmund Pollexfen (L)
Bastard, Edmund Pollexfen (L)
Bastard, Edmund Pollexfen (L)
Bastard, Edmund Pollexfen (L)
Bastard, Edmund Pollexfen (L)
Bastard, Edmund Pollexfen (L)
Bastard, Edmund Pollexfen (L)
Bastard, Edmund Pollexfen (L)
Bastard, Edmund Pollexfen (L)
Bayley, Peter (O)
Bowden, William (O)
Brown, John (O)
Brown, Nicholas (O)
Bryan, Joseph (O)
Chub, Edward (O)
Church (L)
Cleveland, Duke of (Boulton) (L)
Cole, John (L)
Cole, John (L)
Cowles, Charles (O)
Cowles, Mary (L)
Cowles, William & Charles (L)
Crocker, Richard (O)
Cunneybere, Eliza (L)
Dameral, Henry (O)
Daw, Walter (O)
Daw, Walter (O)
Denbow, John (O)
Denbow, John (O)
Denbow, William (O)
Dingle, Thomas (O)
Doulton, John & others (O)
Doulton, John & others (O)
Dunning, Richard (L)
Edgecombe, Benjamin (L & O)
Edgecombe, Benjamin (L & O)
Edgecombe, Benjamin (O)
Edgecombe, Richard (L & O)
Edgecombe, Richard (O)
Elliott, John (L)
Elliott, Philip (L)
Elliott, Richard (L)
Elliott, Thomas (L & O)
Ellis, William (O)
Fice, Thomas (L)
Ford, Honor (L)
Ford, Richard (O)
Ford, Richard (O)
Ford, Thomas (O)
Forrest Thomas (L & O)
Friend, Edward (O)
Friend, Edward (O)
Friend, Friend, Robert (L & O)
Froude Rev Archdeacon (L)
Froude, Rev Archdeacon (L & O)
Froude, Rev Archdeacon (L)
Froude, Rev Archdeacon (L)
Froude, Rev Archdeacon (L)
Froude, Rev Archdeacon (L)
Froude, Revd Archdeacon (L)
Froude, Robert (L & O)
Froude, Robert (O)
Gard, Edward (O)
Grills, Francis (L)
Harris, Ann (L & O)
Harris, John (O)
Harwood, Roger (O)
Hingston, Andrew (L & O)
Hingston, Andrew (L & O)
Hingston, Andrew (O)
Hodder George (L)
Hodder, George (L)
Hodder, Samuel (O)
Hodder, Samuel (L & O)
Hodder, Samuel (L& O)
Hodder, Samuel (O)
Hodder, Samuel (O)
Hodge, Robert (O)
Hoopell, Benjamin (O)
Hyne Philip, (L & O)
Hyne, Philip (L & O)
Hyne, Philip (L & O)
Hyne, Philip, (L)
Hyne, Phillip (L & O)
Jeans, Henry (Trustee) (L)
Jeffery & others (O)
Jones, William (O)
Kemp, Sarah (L & O)
Kerswell, Susan (L)
Kerswill, Nicholas (O)
Kerswill, Nicholas (O)
Kerswill, William (O)
Lake, John (O)
Langworthy, William (L)
Lawzun, Augustus George (L & O)
Lawzun, Augustus George (L & O)
Lidstone, John (O)
Lidstone, Richard (O)
Lidstone, Roger (L & O)
Lidstone, Roger (L & O)
Lucraft, William (L & O)
Lucraft, William (O)
Luggar, William (O)
Luscombe, Thomas (O)
Macey, Walter (L)
Macey, Walter (O)
Man, Jacob (L)
Matthews, Edward (L & O)
Matthews, Edward (O)
Matthews, Edward (O)
May, Samuel (O)
May, Samuel (O)
Monk, John (L)
Moore, Thomas (O)
Morgan, Peter (L & O)
Morgan, Peter (O)
Moysey, Philip (L & O)
Nichols, John (L)
Parsons, Elizabeth (L & O)
Parsons, Frederick (L)
Parsons, Frederick (L)
Parsons, James & Frederick (L)
Parsons, James (L)
Parsons, James, (L)
Parsons, R & Trick, Charles (O)
Parsons, Robert (L & O)
Parsons, Robert (L & O)
Parsons, Robert (O)
Parsons, Robert (O)
Pearce, Ann (L)
Pearce, Ann (L)
Pearce, Grace & Prowse, Jane (L)
Pearce, Grace (L)
Pearce, Grace (L)
Pearce, Nathaniel (O)
Pearce, Nathaniel (O)
Pearce, Nathaniel (O)
Pepperall, Nicholas (O)
Phillips, John (L & O)
Phillips, John (L)
Phillips, Thomas (O)
Pinwell, Andrew (L& O)
Pitts, Charles (O)
Pitts, George (O)
Praed, James (L)
Praed, William Mackworth (L)
Praed, William Mackworth (L)
Praed, William Mackworth (L)
Praed, William Mackworth (L)
Praed, William Mackworth (L)
Praed, William Mackworth (L)
Praed, William Mackworth (L)
Praed, William Macworth (L)
Prettijohn, Nicholas (L & O)
Prettijohn, Walter (L & O)
Prettijohn, Walter (L)
Prowse, Jane & Pearce, Grace
Pulliblank, Joseph (O)
Putt, Richard & Hamlyn (L & O)
Rogers, Christopher (L & O)
Rundle Thomas (O)
Rush, Charles (L & O)
Ryder, George (O)
Saunders, Roger & John (L & O)
Saunders, William (O)
Sherford, Feoffees of, (L)
Sherwell, Thomas (L & O)
Smale, William (L & O)
Snowden, George (O)
Snowden, William (O)
Steer, Eliza (L & O)
Steer, Roger (L & O)
Steer, Roger (L & O)
Stranger, Richard (L)
Taylor, James (O)
Tippet, John (O)
Toms, William (O)
Tope, John (O)
Torring, James (L & O)
Torring, James (O)
Torring, Nathaniel (O)
Trant, Philip (L & O)
Treeby John (L & O)
Tucker, Henry (O)
Tucker, Rev William (O)
Tuckerman, John (L& O)
Vaughan, Rev Benjamin Kerr (L & O)
Vaughan, Rev Benjamin Kerr (L & O)
Veale James Harris (L)
Veale, James Harris (L)
Waldron, John (O)
White, Sarah (L)
White, Sarah (O)
Willcocks, George & others (O)
Willcocks, George (L & O)
Willcocks, George (O)
Willcocks, Henry
Willcocks, John (L)
Willcocks, John (O)
Willcocks, Samuel (L & O)
Willcocks, Samuel (L)
Willcocks, Samuel (O)
Willcocks, William (O)
Wills, John
Wills, John (O)
Wise, Eliza (L)
Wise, Eliza (L)
Woolcombe, John North (L)
Woolcombe, John North (L)
Woolcombe, John North (L)
Woolcombe, John North (L)
Woolcombe, John North (L)
Wroth, Samuel (L)
Yabsley, George (L & O)
Yabsley, George (L)
Yabsley, Josias (L & O)
Yabsley, Josias (O)
Yabsley, Sarah (O)
 

PROPERTY
Weslyan Chapel
Higher Stadbury
Lower Bourn
Lower Bourn
Lower Bourne
Lower Bourne
Lower Bourne
Lower Bourn
Lower Bourn
Waterhead
Waterhead
Marsh Mill
Marsh Mill
Marsh Mill
Marsh Mill
Water Head
Water Head
Water Head
Church Lands
Chantry
Penny Oaks
Lower Bourn
Water Head
Marsh Mill
Church Lands
Efford Bottoms
Chilliton, Part of
Leigh Course Hill
Heathfield Down
Heathfield Down
Polstones Parks
Coultons Borough
Leigh Course Hill
Lower Bourn
Hellers
Lower Bourn
Chilliton, Part of
Collings Tenament
Wisaller & Langland
Yabbacombe Wood
Lower Bourne
Lower Bourne
Cornishes, part of
Lower Bourne
Ashford
Clanaborough Tenemant
Mary Parks
Lower Bourn
Lower Bourn
Lower Bourn
Lower Bourn
Great Babland
Marsh Mill
Leys Harraton
Town Mills
Lixton
Haggaton
Lower Bourn
South Efford
Dear Hill & Thorning
Water Head
Idiston
Lixton
Plantations
Wakeham
Haggaton
Torr
Plantations
Plantations
Town Mills
Cornishes, part of
Damrels Combe
Hellers
Little Lixton
Wakeham
Coultons Borough
Ashford
Bourn Downs
Corner
Leys Harraton
Buckleys
Palmers Harraton
Harraton
Leys Harraton
Buckleys
Leys Harraton
Efford Bottoms
North Efford
Durna Mill
Fishley
Ridley
Heathfield
Harraton Common
Collings Tenament
Maceys Tenement
Voss
Voss
Voss
Idiston
Camps & Hingston
Pond
Penny Oaks
Coultons Borough
Higher Bourn
Titwells
Leys Harraton
Marsh Mill
Broom Hill
Voss
Coultons Borough
Marsh Mill
Great Chilliton
Higher Stadbury
Voss
Voss
Corner
Clarks Tenement
Water Head
Bickfords Barn
Ley
Lower Bourn
Palmers Harraton
Water Head
Clarks Tenement
Waterhead
Corner
Pond
Water Head
Dear Hill
Dear Hill
Ashford Mill
Water Head
Water Head
Ashford Mill
Stockadon
Combe
Church Lands
Dear Hill
Great Chilliton
Chantry
Higher Wisaller
Water Head
Camps & Hingstons
Court
Goodacombe
Yabbacombe
Heath
Water Head
Water Head
Lower Bourn
Ware Downs
Penny Oaks
Leigh Course Hill
Yards
Idiston
North Efford
Ashford
Hexes
Dear Hill & Thorning
Dear Hill & Thorning
Water Head
Bickfords Barn
Idiston
Bennick
Damrels Combe
Higher Wisaller
Town Mills
Water Head
Ware Downs
Leigh Course Hill
Ware Downs
Voss
Ashford
Lower Bourn
Clanaborough Tenament
Spicers Combe
Edwards Borough
Leys Harraton
Church Lands
Ware Downs
Hingstons Borough
Edwards Borough
Yabbacombe Wood
Higher Wisaller
Coultons Borough
Heathfield
Church Lands
Skinners
Hexes
Ashford
Chilliton Moor
New Parks
Voss
Prospect Cottage
Chilliton Moor
Glebe
Glebe (Church)
Lower Stadbury
Lower Stadbury
Lower Bourn
Maceys Tenement
Lower Bourn
Waterhead
Penny Oaks
Lower Bourne
Yabbacombe
Penny Oaks
Plantations
Penny Oaks
Penny Oaks
Plantations
Church Lands
Lower Stadbury
Lower Stadbury
Heath
Wisaller & Langland
Lewhill
Vennings Tenement
Court
Goodacombe
Yabbacombe
Ley
Cornishes
Yabbacombe
Berrymans Combe
Lewhill
Vennings Tenement
 
PLAN NO.
1578
1455 – 1495.8
844 – 851
670 – 671
625 – 626
638
643
688 – 689
696 – 699
749 – 753
773 – 774
777 – 787
814
817 – 818
824
1408
1425.5
1454
708
1020 – 1060
636
697 – 698
669
817
705 – 711
1538 – 1547
547 – 559
811 – 813
1157 – 1175
1157 – 1175
1176 – 1188
1355 – 1384
639
682 – 683
1095 – 1106
1107 – 1109
547 – 559
560 - 571
572 – 624
999 – 1019
638
643
1447 – 1450
672 – 676
677 – 679
680 – 681
686 – 687
688 – 689
1107 – 1109
828
682 – 683
1 – 53
777 – 787
473 – 478
700 – 704
242 – 283.5
284 – 289
828
1548 – 1576
1426 – 1441
1442 – 1446.5
983 – 998
242 – 283.5
321 - 327
195 – 241
284 – 289
290 – 320.5
645 – 646
637
711 – 714
1447 – 1450
1061 – 1078.5
1095 – 1106
328 – 330
195 – 241
1384
852 – 885.5
898 – 899
886 – 897
455 – 456
441 – 454
457 – 472.75
407 – 432.75
433 – 440
441 – 454
455 – 456
1538 – 1547
788 – 810
136 – 148
113 – 131
132 – 135
149 – 194
1579 - 1580
560 – 571
690 - 695
640
684 – 684.5
823
948 – 971
972 – 979
1230 – 1252
635
1355 – 1384
1189 – 1200
1201 – 1213.8
478
818
84 – 110
111 – 112
819
824
509 – 546
1455 – 1495.8
640 -642
642
886 – 897
647 – 652
653 – 656
657 – 667
830 – 843.75
844 – 851
457 - 472.75
1404 – 1423
754 – 755
749 – 753
982
1230 – 1252
821
756 – 763
775 – 776
764 – 772
1404 – 1407
1409 – 1423
764 – 772
331 – 384
385 – 406
705
756 – 763
509 – 546
1020 – 1060
1110 – 1135
653 – 656
972 – 979
1253 – 1290
1291 – 1300.5
1301 – 1321
479 – 508
668
669
670
1385 – 1403
644
811 – 813
943 – 947
948 – 971
788 – 810
900 – 915
930 – 942
1425
1426 – 1441
1442 – 1446.5
657 – 667
1214 – 1227
1079 – 1091
1061 – 1078.5
1110 - 1135
700 – 704
822
820 – 820.5
639
829
823
1451 – 1453
699
680 – 681
64 – 83
1424
473 – 477
710 – 711
685
1322 – 1344
1345 – 1354
999 – 1019
1110 – 1135
1383
149 – 194
709
916 – 929
930 – 942
900 – 915
54 – 63
980 – 981
641
1454
815 – 816
715 – 748
1577
1495
1496 – 1537
671
690 – 695
696
773 – 774
627 – 631
625 – 626
825 – 827
644
645 – 646
632 – 634
635 – 636
637
706 – 707
1496 – 1537
1495
479 – 508
572 – 624
1136 – 1147
1155 – 1156
1253 – 1290
1291 – 1300.5
1301 – 1321
830 – 851
1228 – 1229
825 – 827
1148 – 1154
1136 – 1147
1155 – 1156